Last Friday, the Paris Agreement entered into force, having reached the requisite thresholds (at least 55 ratifying countries representing at least 55% of global carbon emissions) less than a year after it was negotiated. The Agreement’s swift ratification process stands in stark contrast to that of the Kyoto Protocol, the last major climate deal, which took eight years to come into force. Despite ratification and the requirement for countries to re-evaluate their climate goals every five years, many feel that the Agreement isn’t doing enough. Both because national emission reduction targets are voluntary and because just under half the signatories ratified the Agreement, the world is on track to see temperatures rise 2.9-3.4 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. With COP 22 in Marrakech this week, global leaders are turning their attention to implementation of the Paris Agreement, with issues like monitoring progress, funding mitigation efforts, and support for developing nations anticipated to be central to this year’s negotiations. For the full story, see For more information on the foci of COP 22 negotiations, see And for more information on ELI’s work to implement nationally determined contributions under the Paris Agreement, see